Genealogy Resource Guides
This Guide offers a basic list of Alaska related genealogy resources available to researchers. The list is not intended to be comprehensive in its coverage. Sources listed may be available in other Alaska libraries or through interlibrary loan at your local library. Additional sources are housed in the Historical Collections of the State Library, open 10:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. weekdays. If you cannot visit the library or if you require in-depth research, a list of private researchers is available upon request.
- General Sources
- Anchorage Sources
- Fairbanks Sources
- Juneau Sources
- Kenai Peninsula Borough Sources
- Other Alaska Towns
- Internet Sources
- Places To Find Information
Alaska Historical Collections Manuscript List. Alaska Historical Collection.
This is a list of manuscripts held by the Alaska State Library Historical Collection.
Alaska Historical Files: Digitized Index Cards from Captain "Kinky" Bayers Collection. Alaska State Library Historical Collection.
"The files contain Kinky Bayer's colorfully annotated references to historical and current events in Alaska towns. Some examples of topics are: Aboriginal rights claims, Canadian versus American duties, building construction, accident reports, biographical information, geographical and cultural landmarks. Specific dates of events are given, as well as information sources."
DeArmond, R.N. Alaska Weekly (Seattle). Anchorage, AK: Alaska Historical Library, 1979.
A collection of names included in the Alaska Weekly between the years if 1923 and 1948, this index is listed by name, place, and subject.
Alaska: Who's Here, What's Doing, Who's Doing It, 1955. Anchorage: Jeffery Publishing Co., 1955.
"Although this book lists five hundred people prominent in the Territory, it makes no pretense at setting up a caste system. Some of their names were selected because of contributions to civic welfare, some because of business achievement, some for their recognized standing in their community . . . "
The Alaska-Yukon Gold Book: A Roster of the Progressive Men and Women who were Argonauts of the Klondike Gold Stampede...Seattle: Sourdough Stampede Association, Inc., 1930.
"The Gold Book is compiled and published in the interest of all Sourdoughs who are living and in commemoration of those who have gone beyond the Last Pass. It has been developed from a suggestion of pioneers of the Yukon-Klondike days."
Atwood, Evangeline and Robert N. DeArmond. Who's Who in Alaskan Politics: A Biographical Dictionary of Alaskan Political Personalities, 1884-1974. Portland, OR: Binford & Mort and Alaska Historical Commission, 1977.
"Compilations of biographical information in this volume are drawn from thirty years of research by the authors. The major portion has been gleaned from old newspapers, magazines and government documents. In addition, hundreds of telephone calls have provided information on present-day political figures."
Bradbury, Connie, David A. Hales, and Nancy Lesh. Alaska People Index. (vol 1 & 2, 1935-1985) Anchorage: Alaska Historical Commission, 1986.
"The Alaska People Index was compiled to assist genealogists, librarians, historians and other researchers in finding biographical information about Alaskans and individuals in the adjacent Canadian communities. The index includes over 20,000 names. Volume one is an index to names found in the Alaska Sportsman and its successor, Alaska Magazine, 1935-1985. Volume two is an index to the names of individuals that appear in 23 unique Alaskan resources covering the territorial years."
Dynes, W. M. Dynes’ Tours of Alaska and Directory of Southeastern Alaska. Juneau, Alaska: Dynes’ Alaska Directory Co, 1921.
This guide contains a table of contents and brief description of Alaska tours, alphabetized by cities, as well as an index to advertisers around the state.
Ehrlich, Lea, Alaska Journal Index, 1976-1985. Alaska: L. Ehrlich, 1986.
"Contains approximately 5,000 citations. The index includes personal and corporate names, geographic locations and subjects, which are alphabetically interfiled."
Ferrell, Ed. Biographies of Alaska-Yukon Pioneers 1850-1950, Vol. 1- 4. Heritage Books 1994-1997.
"The majority of these early Alaskans came to the Territory between 1880 and 1910. The primary sources used for this compilation were newspaper obituaries and magazine articles. The sources are cited in each biographical entry."
Five Year Index, The Alaska Journal, 1971-1975. Anchorage: Alaska Northwest Publishing Company, c. 1977.
"This subject index is a key to material which has appeared in The Alaska Journal from Volume 1, Number 1, Winter 1971 through Volume V, Number 4, Autumn 1975."
Guide to Probate Records for Alaska, 1885-1960. Juneau, Alaska:Alaska State Archives, 2000.
"The list presented here is a compilation of docket entries, journal indexes, case files and fee collection reports."
Hales, David A., Margaret H. Heath, and Gretchen L. Lake. An Index to the Dawson City, Yukon Territory and Alaska Directory and Gazetteer, Alaska-Yukon Directory and Gazetteer, and Polk's Alaska-Yukon Gazetteer and Business Directory, 1901-1912. (microfiche)
"This is an index to over 105,000 personal names included in the Dawson City, Yukon Territory and Alaska Directory and Gazetteer, Alaska-Yukon Directory and Gazetteer and Polk's Alaska-Yukon Gazetteer and Business Directory for the years 1901-1912." Lists all information found in source: name, occupation, company, address, location and country.
Merrell, Bruce. Alaska Territorial Telephone Books, 1906-1958: A Collection on Microfiche. Anchorage, AK: Anchorage Municipal Libraries, 1989.
"In the course of this project 287 telephone directories were located and copied. Many more still exist, and we will add them to this compilation as they are found." Note: the microfiche only goes to 1958.
Nicolson, Mary C. and Mary Anne Slemmons. Alaska Newspapers on Microfilm, 1866-1998. Fairbanks: [Juneau]: University of Alaska Fairbanks; Alaska State Library, 1998.
"This is a guide to Alaskan newspapers available on microfilm located in Alaskan libraries. It includes newspapers listed by title and by place of publication."
Orth, Donald J. Dictionary of Alaska Place Names. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1967.
"This work is an alphabetical list of the geographic names that are now applied and have been applied to places and features of the Alaska landscape. Principal names, compiled from modern maps and charts and printed in boldface type, generally reflect present-day local usage."
Parham, Bruce, compiler. How to find your Gold Rush Relative: sources on the Klondike and Alaska gold rushes (1896-1914). Juneau, Alaska: Alaska Gold Rush Centennial Task Force, . "This guide is intended to provide a basic list of Alaska and Yukon genealogical resources for individuals who were in the north during the Klondike and Alaska gold rushes (1896-1914)."
Pierce, Richard A. Russian America: A Biographical Dictionary. Kingston, Ontario; Fairbanks, Alaska: Limestone Press, 1990.
"The 675 lives described here include anyone who influenced developments in Alaska in that period, not only Russians who were there, but sovereigns and high court officials in St. Petersburg; British, French, Spanish and American seafarers; Finlanders, Americans and people of other nationalities who were employed by the company; and Native Americans. Under Russian supervision, Russian America was truly an international enterprise involving the efforts and sacrifices of many peoples."
Roppel, Patricia. An index of obituaries of Alaskans and those active in Alaska. Wrangell, Alaska: P. Roppel, 1997.
"This index was compiled from various sources including newspapers, magazines, books, and, in a few cases, grave markers. The earliest obituary is 4/16/1899 and the latest in 2/10/1995. Publications used for this index are listed on the following page. The Alaska Sportsman magazine is covered through 1965 although some of the announcements were not published until 1966."
Subject Index to Alaska Magazine, 1935-1972. (formerly Alaska Sportsman) Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Northwest Publishing Co., 1973.
"This subject index is a key to signed articles and stories which have appeared in Alaska Magazine from its beginning as the Alaska Sportsman in January, 1935, through the December, 1972, issue of Alaska. Each article indexed appears under the main subject heading with which it is concerned."
Subject Index to Alaska Magazine, 1973-1977. (formerly Alaska Sportsman) Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Northwest Publishing Co., 1989.
"This subject index is a guide to articles and stories that have appeared in Alaska from January 1973 through December 1977. A previous subject index lists material published from 1935 through 1972."
Tewkesbury's Who's Who in Alaska and Alaska Business Index. Juneau: Tewkesbury Publishers, 1947.
"Containing a biographical index of personal sketches of prominent living Alaskans, an alphabetical directory of business concerns and their owners, complete directory of the fur trade and of the fishing, mining, and lumber industries, a list of Federal and Territorial government agencies and welfare institutions, and much information of a miscellaneous character."
Tillotson, Marjorie. A Guide to the Eskimo, A Quarterly Magazine Devoted to the Interests of Eskimos of Alaska, 1916-1918 and 1936-1947.
"This guide is an index to people, places and other subjects mentioned in The Eskimo, a quarterly magazine devoted to the interests of Alaskan Eskimos. The periodical was first published in 1916 under the auspices of the U.S. Bureau of Education by Walter C. Shields, the superintendent of the Northern District of Alaska at Nome."
Tillotson, Marjorie. A Guide to the Pathfinder, A Monthly Journal of the Pioneers of Alaska, 1919-1926.
"This guide is an index to people, places and other subjects discussed in The Pathfinder, a monthly journal published in Valdez, Alaska, 1919-1926. It is the official organ of the Pioneers of Alaska and contains information and portraits for many of these early settlers."
1900 U.S. Alaska Census; with Soundex index [microfilm].
1910 U.S. Alaska Census; no index [microfilm]
1920 U.S. Alaska Census; with Soundex index [microfilm]
U.S. Census data for Alaska from the National Archives. A separate Soundex filing system for names is available for the 1900 and 1920 census, but not for the 1910. Each census is arranged by enumeration district within the Southern and Northern Districts for 1900 and within the four Judicial Districts for 1910 and 1920. The census data is confidential for 72 years; thus the 1940 census will be not be released until April 2012.
For more information on the census, see the Internet Sources section.
Chang, Tohksook P., ed. The Anchorage Times Obituaries Index, v.1 (1915-1965), suppl. [vol. 2] (1966-1980). Anchorage: University of Alaska Library, 1980 (vol. 2 on microfiche).
"All obituaries of persons who at the time of death were in Alaska, or who had once lived in Alaska, are included from the Times. Many persons have multiple entries because it was common, especially in the early days, to list a person in three or more editions of the paper. Each entry is important because the information varies from one to another. Spellings of names especially vary. The names are listed as they were found."
Samuels, Barbara. The Anchorage Times Obituaries Index, 1981-1990. Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Collection, Anchorage Municipal Libraries, 1991.
"Continuation of two earlier indexes produced jointly by the Anchorage Municipal Libraries and the University of Alaska Anchorage Library."
The Anchorage Obituary Index, 1991-1995. Anchorage, Alaska: Anchorage Municipal Libraries, 1996.
"Continuation of three earlier indexes. The title of this index has been changed to reflect that the Anchorage Times ceased publication in June, 1992. After that date all obituary citations are drawn from the Anchorage Daily News. An added field, 'Source', indicates whether the citation is from the Anchorage Daily News (ADN) or the Anchorage Times (AT)."
The Anchorage Obituary Index, 1996-2000. Anchorage, Alaska: Anchorage Municipal Libraries, 2000. "Continuation of four earlier indexes produced jointly by the Anchorage Municipal Libraries and the University of Alaska Anchorage Library.
Births, Marriages, Divorces and Deaths Reported in the Fairbanks Daily News-Miner Fairbanks, Alaska 1940-1949. Fairbanks Genealogical Society, Fairbanks.
This is an index to births, marriages, divorces and deaths reported in the Fairbanks Daily News-Miner. "Even the deceased person named in the classifieds, "Notice to Creditors," was extracted thin in the editing process, eliminated if an obituary or any mention of the individual's death was printed."
Hales, David A., ed. An Index to the Early History of Alaska as Reported in the 1903-1907 Fairbanks Newspapers. University of Alaska, Fairbanks.
"This is an index to the Fairbanks News, Fairbanks Evening News and the Fairbanks Daily News covering the years 1903-1907."
Index of Births, Deaths, Marriages and Divorces in Fairbanks, Alaska Newspapers, 1903-1930. State of Alaska, Alaska Historical Commission.
"This is an index to births, deaths, marriages and divorces as recorded in early Fairbanks, Alaska newspapers (1903-1930) for individuals who were affiliated in some way with Alaska or bordering communities in Canada."
Index of Births, Deaths, Marriages and Divorces in Fairbanks, Alaska Newspapers, 1950-1955. Fairbanks Genealogical Society, Suzanne Carroll (ed), 2002.
This is an index to births, marriages, divorces, and deaths reported in the Fairbanks Daily News-Miner. "Even the deceased person named in the classifieds,"Notice to Creditors," was extracted then in the editing process, eliminating if an obituary or any mention of the individual's death was printed."
Name Authority File for Fairbanks, Alaska Newspapers, 1908-Feb. 1914. State of Alaska, Alaska Historical Commission, 1986.
"This index includes over 2,500 names of individuals (Alaskan and people in neighboring Canadian communities) whose names appeared in the Fairbanks newspapers from 1908 to February 19, 1914."
Bayers, Lloyd H. "Kinky." Juneau People and Subject Indexes, 1890's-1950's.
Eclectic mix of Juneau subjects and people as collected by Mr. Bayers. The binders contain photocopies of index cards containing annotations and references to newspapers, usually the Juneau Empire.
DeArmond, R.N. The Founding of Juneau. Gastineau Channel Centennial Association, 1980. Biographies about Juneau pioneers, 1880-1895.
"The discovery of gold in Silver Bow Basin in 1880 was not by any means the first made in Alaska, but it was the first discovery of gold in Alaska that resulted in the founding of a town." Includes biographies of Juneau founders.
DeArmond, R.N. Some Names Around Juneau. Sitka Print Co. 1957.
"Listed alphabetically in the following study are 123 names for 142 places or geographic features in Juneau and its immediate vicinity, from Point Bishop on the south to Eagle River on the north and including the eastern side of Douglas Island."
Eppenbach, Sarah, ed. The Centennial Gazetteer: A Guide to Juneau, Alaska Place Names. Juneau Centennial Edition, 1880-1980. Gastineau Channel Centennial Assoc.
"Most of the information in this booklet appears with the permission of R.N. DeArmond, who first compiled and published it in a volume entitled Some Names Around Juneau."
Evergreen Cemetery Burial Records. Compiled by City and Borough of Juneau, Parks and Recreation, 1996. Juneau, Alaska.
"Lists names, death dates, location of plots at the Evergreen Cemetery in Juneau, Alaska."
Funeral Records, Master Index Juneau, AK 1898-1964 Parts I & II. Indexed by the Gastineau Genealogical Society, 1987. Juneau, Alaska.
"This manuscript collection contains the records of Juneau's mortuaries, the C.W. Young Co., the Juneau-Young Co., and the C.W. Carter Mortuary, from January 2, 1898 through March 20, 1964.
Juneau History Index Cards - People. Alaska State Library Historical Collections
"Digitized Index Cards from Captain 'Kinky' Bayers Collection. The files contain brief and annotated biographical notes, police blotter style news, obituaries, local news and anecdotes, historical biography of prominent people. Entries often emphasize scandalous, quirky, and heroic behavior."
Juneau History Index Cards - Subjects. Alaska State Library Historical Collections
"Digitized Index Cards from Captain 'Kinky' Bayers Collection. This file contains annotated references to events and issues, both broad and personal in scope. For example: Labor history and strikes, Ferry boats, bakeries in town, drunk driving incidents."
Leahy, Marilyn. Women of Juneau [includes men]. Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History, no. 119.
"This is an index of items relating to the history of women in the Juneau area. Two newspapers were indexed; the Alaska Free Press, of which scattered issues are extant, 1887 to 1891; and the Juneau City Mining Register, April 1888 through 1891."
Miller, Betty J. 1898-1922 Vital Records of Alaska & Yukon (Marriage, Death, Birth, Divorce, Anniversary & Christening): as Reported in the Weekly Douglas Island Newspaper. Juneau, Alaska: Gastineau Genealogical Society, 1991.
"This book is designed to be a tool in addition to the microfilm [of the Douglas Island Weekly]. There is an alphabetical index to expedite your research. The index will show the year and page number within this book that you can find an article about the person. When you find this year and page that it appears, it will show you the exact date of the newspaper article, page and column number, the specific event (birth, death etc.) in some cases the location of the events and the date of the event."
Miller, Betty J. Vital Records from the Alaska Daily Empire, 1916-1920. Juneau, Alaska: Juneau-Douglas City Museum, 1994.
"Most of the records abstracted in this book include marriages, divorces, deaths, births, adoptions, christenings, and anniversaries. For reference purposes, each entry contains a citation which identified the publication and issue date, page and column, what the occasion was and the names of the individuals involved. When known the location and date of the event was recorded."
Miller, Betty J. Vital Records from the Alaska Daily Empire, 1921-1925. Juneau, Alaska: Betty J. Miller, 1996.
"This reference book covers vital statistical records abstracted from the Juneau Daily Empire from 1921 through 1925."
Miller, Betty J. Vital Records from the Alaska Daily Empire, 1926-1930. Juneau, Alaska: Betty J. Miller, 1998.
"This reference book covers vital statistical records abstracted from the Juneau Daily Empire from 1926 through 1930."
Miller, Betty J. Vital Records from the Alaska Daily Empire, 1931-1935. Juneau, Alaska: Betty J. Miller, 2001.
"This reference book covers vital statistical records abstracted from the Juneau Daily Empire from 1931 through 1935."
Miller, Betty J. Vital Records from the Alaska Daily Empire, 1936. Juneau, Alaska: Betty J. Miller, 2004.
"This reference book covers vital statistical records abstracted from the Juneau Daily Empire from 1936."
Miller, Betty J. Vital Records, Volumes 0 – 5, 1898—1936. Alaska, Yukon, and specifically Juneau, Alaska: Betty J. Miller, 1991—2004.
These are Volumes 0 – 5, mentioned above, that have been made available online as searchable PDFs. Visit our Vital Records page to download individual volumes or the entire set of volumes as one PDF.
Redman, Earl. An Index to Mines and Prospects in the Juneau Gold Belt from Juneau Area Newspapers, 1885-1944.
"In an attempt to find out more about the little-known prospects, many hours were spent scanning microfilm of the old newspapers from Juneau, Douglas, and Sitka in the Alaska State Library in Juneau. The amount of information unearthed in the old newspapers was tremendous."
Redman, Earl. History of the Mines and Miners in the Juneau Gold Belt: a collection of stories telling about the mines, the miners, their golden dreams and how they tried to achieve them. Juneau: 5984 North Street, Juneau, AK: E. Redman, c. 1988.
"Based on Juneau-area newspaper stories, U.S. Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines publications, State of Alaska reports, private company reports and personal visits to many of the mines."
Kenai Peninsula Borough Sources
Alaska's Kenai Peninsula Death Records and Cemetery Inscriptions. Kenai Totem Tracers, 1983.
"[The] Kenai Totem Tracers Genealogy Club decided to record and catalog the existing cemeteries of the Kenai Peninsula Borough. This book is the result." Includes Homer Recording District, Kenai Recording District, Seward Recording District and Anchor Point Cemetery.
Cemetery Search for Seward, Alaska. Resurrection Bay Historical Society, 2012.
A keyword and name search for records of people who were buried in one of the Seward, Alaska cemeteries. More birth and death records of people who lived in Seward or the Eastern Kenai Peninsula may be found at Seward Community Library & Museum. All death records were compiled by the Resurrection Bay Historical Society by using newspaper sources not limited to the Anchorage Daily, Seward Weekly, and Seward Phoenix Log.
Stallings, Mike. Index to the Seward Gateway, A newspaper, 1904-1910. Seward Community Library, 1983. "The Gateway started as a weekly in August 1904 amid the construction of the town's first buildings and the laying of the railroads first rails . . . published simultaneously with the daily, the weekly was then issued as a compilation of the week's most newsworthy items for subscribers in outlying areas and Outside. The index is divided into four sections: vessels, people, geographic and subjects."
Other Alaska Towns
DeArmond, R.N. A Sitka Chronology 1867-1987. Indexed by Robert N. DeArmond, 1993.
"Much of the information for this compilation came from newspapers, and some of it from unexpected ones. The Skagway Alaskan, for example. For about ten years after The Alaskan in Sitka ceased publication, the Skagway paper published more Sitka news than did the Juneau daily papers."
DeArmond, R.N. Subject Index to the Alaskan, 1885-1907, A Sitka Newspaper. Indexed by Robert N. DeArmond. Gastineau Channel Centennial Assoc., 1974.
"The Alaskan, a Sitka newspaper published from 1885-1907, was an important voice for Alaska. The newspaper has been indexed alphabetically arranged under the following categories: General subjects, People, Sitka and Vessels."
Forrest, Celia. Index to the Petersburg Newspapers, 1913-1916. [Anchorage]: Alaska Historical Commission, Dept. of Education, State of Alaska.
"This index covers 1913-1916, the first three years Petersburg had newspapers. It is intended to help researchers interested in the history of the community of Petersburg and in the growth of industries in the region."
Lethcoe, Jim and Nancy. Valdez Gold Rush Trails of 1898-99. Valdez: Prince William Sound Books, c1996.
Gold Rush era documentary on the founding and development of Valdez, Alaska's gold rush trail. Includes a "Roll Call" of people in Valdez, Alaska in 1898-99.
Redman, Earl. An Index to Mining-Related Articles in Ketchikan Newspapers, 1901-1936: Ketchikan District (including George and Carroll Inlets, Thorne Bay, Gravina and Annette Island) and Hyder, Helm Bay, Prince of Wales Island, and Southeast Alaska. Juneau: Alaska State Library, Division of Libraries, Archives and Museums, Dept. of Education, 1996.
"Between 1990 and 1994, the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a study of the Ketchikan mining district, including the Ketchikan (Ketchikan, George and Carroll Inlets, Thorne Bay, Gravina and Annette Island), Helm Bay, Hyder. and Prince of Wales island areas. During an earlier study of the Juneau mining district, the principal author discovered that the old Juneau-area newspapers contained a wealth of information on the history and location of mines and prospects in that area and the miners who worked them. In the Juneau study, over 4,000 references were found in the Juneau newspapers and these were ultimately put together in an index published by the Alaska Historical Collections, Alaska State Library."
AlaskaGenWeb. Eds. Ligon, Sarah and Capt. Pat Smith. USGenWeb Project. Date accessed: June 24, 2004
AlaskaGenWeb is an affiliate of the USGenWeb Project, a group of volunteers working together to provide Internet websites for genealogical research in every county and every state of the United States. They include a list of Alaska vital records and research links and a listing of people in Alaska willing to do personal research lookups.
Cyndi's List of Genealogy Sites on the Internet. Ed. Cyndi Howells. Sierra Home and Generations Family Tree Software. Date accessed: June 24, 2004.
A comprehensive genealogical reference site containing more than 63,150 links. 232,000 links catagorized & cross-referenced in over 150 categories including categories for Alaska and the Yukon.
Yukon Genealogy and Pan for Gold Database. Accessed June 28, 2004
"The Pan for Gold Databases contain information on individuals who were in the Yukon during the Gold Rush years." Material for the Pan for Gold database was assembled by the Dawson City Museum and Historical Society. There are 28 seperate databases that names are searched against.
Social Security Death Index (SSDI) Search Page. Ancestry.com. Date accessed: Junea 24, 2004.
Ancestry.com's Social Security Death Index is generated from the U.S. Social Security Administrations Death Master File. It contains the records of deceased persons who possessed Social Security numbers and whose death had been reported to the SSA. In most cases a report of death was made in connection with Social Security death benefits. Only covers individuals who had a social security number. Includes birth and death dates and birthplace and death location (if known). (Note: the Social Security program was enacted in 1935, so people did not have a social security number prior to that date.)
Yukon & Alaska Genealogy Centre. Pathfinder Publications, Whitehorse, Yukon Territory. Date accessed: June 24, 2004.
A site created to allow access to information that Pathfinder Publications, and others, have assembled. Sample databases include: an index to proprietors and managers of historic Alaska and Yukon hotels, wayhouses, saloons & cafes, a list of the 203 families who comprised the Matanuska Colony, and more. Pathfinder Publications also offers contract research services.
Places to find information
Alaska State Archives
141 Willoughby Ave.
Juneau, AK 99801
Official state of Alaska records, probate, court records.
Anchorage Genealogy Society
PO 212265 Anchorage AK 99521
Fairbanks Genealogical Society
Fairbanks, AK 99706-0534
Gastineau Historical Society
Juneau, AK 99802-1264
Gastineau Genealogy Society
3270 Nowell Ave.
Juneau, AK 99801
(907) 586-3695 please, no collect calls
This organization is not for hire and provides limited research and general consultation.
University of Washington
M-171 Suzzallo Library FM-25
Seattle, WA 98195-0001
Genealogy & Family History Guide: http://guides.lib.uw.edu/c.php?g=341504&p=2771250
Source: Alaska State Library — http://library.alaska.gov