Tribal Libraries in Alaska
What is a tribal library?
According the 2014 article, Tribal Libraries: Vital but Often Invisible Treasures written by Karen M. Brown and Kelly P. Webster, tribal libraries rose out of The Indian Self-Determination and Educational Assistance Act of 1975, subsequent legislation and hearings at the White House Conferences on Indian Library and Information Services on or Near Reservations. “A tribal library must be designated by a tribe.” All federally recognized tribes are eligible for Basic Grant funding through the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) Native American Library Services grant program. These tribes may also apply for competitive IMLS Enhancement Grants.
Source: Brown, K.M., & Webster, K.P. (2014). Tribal Libraries: Vital but Often Invisible Treasures, OLA Quarterly, 12(4), 20-24.
For the past twenty years, the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) has offered Native American Library Services Basic Grants to tribal communities throughout the United States. Basic grants are one year grants of $6,000 to $10,000 to support existing library operations and maintain core library services. These noncompetitive grants are distributed in equal amounts among eligible application. In Alaska, 39 tribal communities received a Basic Grant in FY2019.
Native American Library Services Enhancement Grants bolster existing library services or implement new library services for Indian tribes. Grants are only awarded to applicants that have an active Native American Library Services Basic Grant in the same fiscal year. Two Native American Library Services Enhancement Grants were awarded to Alaska tribal communities.
The Congressional Research Service's report Tribal Broadband: Status of Deployment and Federal Funding Program [PDF], updated January 9, 2019 describes how high poverty rates and low income on tribal lands combined with rugged terrain lead discourage broadband providers to serve those areas and lead to poor levels of broadband access. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the Department of Commerce have begun to collect and compile data on tribal broadband deployment. This data shows that the tribal areas most lacking in broadband service are rural Alaskan villages and rural tribal lands in the lower 48 states.
The Federal Communications Commission is taking steps to encourage and expand broadband deployment in rural America which would help address the poor access to broadband in Alaska. In 2018, the ReConnect Program was will award up to 4600 million through grants, loans, and grant/loan combinations to entities capable of providing retail broadband service to customers in rural areas currently lacking sufficient broadband access. Eligible applicants include Indian Tribes as defined in section 4 of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, 25 U.S.C. § 450b.
Under the Alaska statutory definition of a public library, there are 93 public libraries ranging in size from the Anchorage Public Library that serves an urban area of almost 300,000 to the Lake Minchumina Community Library that serves a year-round population of 19. There is no Alaska definition of tribal libraries, but based on records of the Alaska State Library and awards of funds by IMLS in recent years, there are approximately 50 tribal libraries varying in size from the Sealaska Heritage Foundation in Juneau and the Tuzzy Consortium Library in Utquiagvik (a community library and tribal college library) to the Innoko River Tribal Library in Shageluk, which is a combined public/school library. There is some overlap in these types of libraries because some public libraries (22%) have been designated as tribal libraries by their local tribal entity. Remote and rural communities may have 55-98% Alaska Native residents. So, many smaller public libraries (36%) and all tribal libraries serve predominantly Alaska Native communities.
Alaska recognition and support for tribal libraries has been evolving through the efforts of individual public library directors, Alaska State Library staff and various library associations.
|2001||Culturally Responsive Guidelines adopted by the Alaska Library Association|
|2003||Alaska Native Issues Roundtable formed by the Alaska Library Association|
|2011||Alaska Native Libraries, Archives, and Museum Summit|
|2012||Museum Boot Camp|
|2012||Sponsored scholarships to Indigenous Knowledge: IFLA Presidential Program Meeting, Vancouver, BC|
|2013||Culturally Responsive Libraries Workshop|
|Library of Congress Digital Preservation Train the Trainer Workshop|
|Sponsored scholarships to International Indigenous Librarians Forum, Bellingham WA|
|2014||Indigenous Libraries, Archives & Museums (iLAMs) listserv formed|
|2016||Alaska Library Association Preconference sponsored by the Alaska Native Issues Roundtable & the Alaska Native Archive (UAF) on Alaska Native language materials|
|2018||Honoring Alaska Native Cultural Heritage through Tribal and Community Libraries Project|
|2019||Alaska Digital Stewardship Intensive online training|
|Honoring Alaska Native Cultural Heritage through Tribal and Communities Libraries YR 2 Grants|
Eligibility for E-Rate
According to the Universal Service Administrative Company, tribal libraries are eligible for E-Rate if they are:
- Not-for profit,
- Financially independent from any school budget, and
- Eligible for LSTA funding in the state within which they are geographically located.
In Alaska, tribal libraries can become eligible for E-Rate in one of two ways:
- The Institute of Museum and Library Services distributes LSTA funds to the Alaska State Library, which uses the funding to support Interlibrary Cooperation (ILC) grants. The State Library can certify a tribal library as eligible for E-Rate if it is eligible for ILC grants. The tribal library would not have to apply for an ILC grant, but just be certified as eligible.
To be certified, a tribal library must meet five (5) criteria:
- The library must share resources free of charge with other libraries in Alaska;
- The library must have a regular schedule of library services;
- The library must have a dedicated facility for library purposes;
- The library must have an established history of providing library services and programs; and
- The library must have an annual budget with funds allocated for library materials and services.
- The tribal library can become a public library if it will serve the entire community. To become a public library, the tribal library would need to become eligible for the Public Library Assistance Grant [PDF].
- By Alaska Statute, a public library must provide these basic four services:
- Purchase, maintain and provide for the circulation of a collection of library books and materials;
- Provide interlibrary loan service;
- Provide reference services; and
- Provide children's programs.
- Per the Alaska Administrative Code, public libraries receiving the grant must also:
- Library Schedule: Must be open on a regular schedule at least 48 weeks of the year and at least 3 days each week.
- Library Hours: Public libraries must provide 5 or more hours of evening service (after 5 PM) and weekends.
Main Library Hours Per Week Based on Population:
- Fewer than 750 people - 10 hours minimum
- 750 - 1,500 people - 15 hours minimum
- 1,500 - 3,000 people - 25 hours minimum
- 3,000 - 10,000 people - 40 hours minimum
- 10,000 or more people - 50 hours minimum
- Collection Development: Spend a minimum of $3,500 of local or grant funds annually on library materials for patrons to use.
- Grant Match: Must match 100% ($7,000) of the grant by providing a mix of either local funds and/or volunteer labor. Volunteer labor shall be valued at a rate of $22.00 an hour. If claiming volunteer labor hours for match, the library can only claim up to the total number of hours the library is open each year.
- Policies and Reports: Each library shall adopt and maintain a written collection development policy; shall adopt and maintain a mission, goals, and objectives statement; shall maintain an accurate accounting of its budget and expenditures; shall submit a complete public library annual report every year; and shall submit minutes of at least quarterly library board meetings if library is operated as a nonprofit.
- Staffing Requirements: Trained staff (paid or volunteer) shall operate the library during all open Hours. Library directors must attend one approved continuing education program every two years. In cities with 3,000 - 5,999 people, the library director must have a bachelor's degree and library management experience or training. In cities with more than 6,000 people, the director shall have a master's degree in library science.
- By Alaska Statute, a public library must provide these basic four services:
- Alaska Native Libraries, Archives and Museums Summit (ANLAMS)
- American Indians in Children's Literature Best Books of 2019
- American Indian Library Association
- TRAILS: Tribal Library Procedures Manual, 4th edition [PDF, external site]
- Alaska Native Resources for Librarians
- Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)
- FCC Tribal Initiatives
- Tribal Leaders Directory-U.S. Bureau of Interior Indian Affairs
- Digital Inclusion in Indian Country: The Role of Tribal Libraries: Final Report [external PDF]
Page last updated 12/17/2019